Shabbat Candle Lighting Times & Weekly Torah Portion
Grade 8 Dvar Torah by: Micah
This week’s Parsha, Va'era, is very important and renowned, because the first seven of 10 plagues are included. After some introductory information about the generations of Israel, we finally get to Moses’s confrontation with Pharaoh. Chapter seven verse ten says: “When Pharaoh speaks to you and says, ‘Produce your marvel,’ you shall say to Aaron, ‘Take your rod and cast it down before Pharaoh.’ It shall turn into a serpent.
So Moses and Aaron came before Pharaoh and did just as the LORD had commanded: Aaron cast down his rod in the presence of Pharaoh and his courtiers, and it turned into a serpent.” Aaron produces the first of many miracles from God's command, but Pharaoh's magicians come right back to perform the same miracle. Then God turns the nile into blood, and the magicians do the same thing.
The next plague, frogs, is presented as follows in Chapters 7 and 8: “If you refuse to let them go, then I will plague your whole country with frogs. The Nile shall swarm with frogs, and they shall come up and enter your palace, your bedchamber and your bed, the houses of your courtiers and your people, and your ovens and your kneading bowls. The frogs shall come up on you and on your people and on all your courtiers. ’”And the LORD said to Moses, “Say to Aaron: Hold out your arm with the rod over the rivers, canals, and the ponds, and bring up the frogs on the land of Egypt. ”Aaron held out his arm over the waters of Egypt, and the frogs came up and covered the land of Egypt.
But the magicians did the same with their spells, and brought frogs upon the land of Egypt.” In 8:2 the English translation says that the “frogs came up,” but in Hebrew, where everywhere else it says, “Tzefardiim” which is the plural, here it says, “Tzefardaya, one frog.” Why? Rashi has a comment on this: AND THE FROGS (literally. “frog”) CAME UP — Rashi says, that Really there was only one frog, but when the Egyptians tried to kill it and struck it with sticks, it was split into many swarms. But a literal explanation is that one could say that the swarm of the frogs is presented by the singular word - frog. Similar to when the Lice are presented as “and there was the KINAM” — the swarm of insects, instead of KINIM. So, too, here, V’TAAL HATZFARDAYA means: and there came up as a swarm of frogs. The rest of the parsha ends with lice, flies, disease on livestock, boils and hail/fire. Do you think God should have stricken Egypt with anymore plagues?
Grade 8 Dvar Torah by: Lilly
This week’s Parsha, Shmot, is pretty juicy. There is a new Pharoah in Egypt who does not remember Joseph. The Israelites are enslaved in Egypt and Moses is born. Pharoah orders two midwives, Shifra and Puah, to kill all baby boys but they argue that the women give birth before they can get there. Pharoah then orders that all baby boys must be thrown into the Nile. After this order, Moses’ mother, Yocheved, hides him in their home for three months after giving birth to him. When she can no longer hide him she places him in a basket and puts him into the Nile. Moses’ sister Miriam watches Moses to make sure he is safe. She then sees Bat Pharoah take pity on Moses and take him into her home.
Now, what is one thing we notice here? Each time that there is an upstander in the beginning of the story, it is a woman. The midwives refuse to kill the babies, Yocheved does not throw Moses into the river, Miriam watches Moses to make sure he is safe, and Bat Pharoah saves Moses. Each of these women stands up against the word of Pharoah. I found this interesting since there is often a lack of representation for women in the Torah, and here, right at the beginning of Shmot, we see four female upstanders.
This is just the beginning of the story. Moshe grows up in the palace and one day as he is walking he sees an Egyptian taskmaster beating an Israeli slave and he kills the Egyptian. He then runs to Midian and marries Zipporah. One day, God appears in a burning bush and tells Moses he must free the Israelites. I found this text particularly interesting:
וַ֠יֵּרָא מַלְאַ֨ךְ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֵלָ֛יו בְּלַבַּת־אֵ֖שׁ מִתּ֣וֹךְ הַסְּנֶ֑ה וַיַּ֗רְא וְהִנֵּ֤ה הַסְּנֶה֙ בֹּעֵ֣ר בָּאֵ֔שׁ וְהַסְּנֶ֖ה אֵינֶ֥נּוּ אֻכָּֽל׃
An angel of the LORD appeared to him in a blazing fire out of a bush. He gazed, and there was a bush all aflame, yet the bush was not consumed. Why would God appear in a burning bush what did the bush represent?
One answer that I found from Mathew Berkowitz explaining Professor Falk’s opinion was that from the burning bush, Moses can sort of see that the liberation from Egypt will not just be about being free, it will be about becoming a servant to this forever burning god. He also says that we must recognize our own “burning bush moments” and he writes when a sign appears, “we must have the patience and faith to embrace it, understand it, and be inspired by it. Such signs have the potential of liberating us from modern ‘bonds of Egypt.’”
Do you have an example of your burning bush moment? Can you remember a time where something happened to you and you weren’t really sure why and later it ended up helping you or making a large impact on you?
My burning bush moment was my Bat Mitzvah. When I first started, I was overwhelmed, confused, and I thought there was no way I’d be able to learn everything. But after putting the work in for months, it ended up being the most rewarding and meaningful moment of my life.
Grade 7 Dvar Torah by: Daria
This week’s parsha is Vayechi. It is the last parsha in sefer Beresheit. It is the end of the story of Yosef and his brothers.
Yaakov is dying so he calls his sons to his bedside so he can give them brachot and last words of advice.
In the bracha that Yaakov gives to Yosef, I saw confusing language which made me wonder if Yaakov knew all of what happened between Yosef and the brothers. Did Yaakov know that the brothers tried to kill Yosef and then he was sold into slavery?
Here are the words of the bracha:
וַיְמָרְרֻהוּ, וָרֹבּוּ; וַיִּשְׂטְמֻהוּ, בַּעֲלֵי חִצִּים. וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּאֵיתָן קַשְׁתּוֹ, וַיָּפֹזּוּ זְרֹעֵי יָדָיו;
The pasuk says that a group of 'archers' made 'his' life bitter. They fought with 'him' and despised 'him'. But 'his' arrow was firm in the bow and 'his' arms were shaking.
I think the ‘him’ in this pasuk refers to Yosef because Yaakov is giving this bracha to him. But who is the ‘they’ in this pasuk? Why does the pasuk talk about archers?
There is one word on the pasuk that makes me think the ‘them’ in this pasuk is Yosef’s brothers and that the word archers is used as an analogy.
The word וַיִּשְׂטְמֻהוּ , which means despised, is only used one time in Chumash before this and it is used to describe how much Esav despised Yaakov when Yaakov stole the blessing from him. Esav decided in that moment he was going to kill Yaakov for his action.
So the use of the word וַיִּשְׂטְמֻהוּ makes a connection between these two stories. Just like Esav despised Yaakov for getting a blessing from their father and wanted to kill him, the brothers despised Yosef for getting blessings from their father and wanted to kill him as well.
SO, this final blessing is about Yosef and his brothers, but why compare the brothers to archers and describe Yosef as someone holding an arrow in his bow, his arms shaking, but not shooting the arrow?
I think archers take aim and shoot to kill. That’s exactly what the brothers did. They aimed at Yosef and intended to kill him. But Yosef was an archer who held the arrow in his bow firmly and did not let it go. Yosef was a very powerful man in Egypt by the time he sees his brothers again. He had all the power to just kill them, to shoot his arrow, but he didn’t. He might have wanted to, but he holds it firmly for so long that his arms are shaking from holding on to it.
So Yaakov’s bracha shows us that Yaakov knew what the brothers had done to Yosef and the restrain Yosef had shown in not getting even. That is why Yaakov blessed Yosef in this way.
Question? How do you think Yaakov knew what happened to Yosef?
Grade 7 Dvar Torah by: Adin
Let’s say there are two siblings who definitely don’t represent me and my sister. The older sibling has a new, unopened set of markers which they don’t really want. The younger sibling really wants them. The older sibling can just give them over and be nice. Or they could even just let the younger sibling borrow them, in case they want them later. But if they want to be more selfish, they could require the younger sibling to give something else in exchange. Should they be nice, or make a profit? And what are the consequences of this kind of decision?
In my Bar Mitzvah parshah, Miketz, Pharaoh has two dreams, the meaning of which no one can understand. Pharaoh hears about Joseph, this man who can interpret dreams, and calls him. Joseph understands the two dreams as one prophecy saying there will be seven years of plenty followed by seven years of famine. Joseph tells this to Pharaoh, who promotes him to second in command on the spot. He then puts Joseph in charge of collecting the food during the years of plenty, and selling it back to the people during the years of famine. The first seven years go by smoothly. But it is during the famine when Joseph’s brothers come back to him, asking for food. Joseph recognises his brothers, although they don’t recognise him. He uses his power over them to harass them, saying they are spies, threatening them, and occasionally going into another room to cry. The parshah ends on a cliffhanger, with Joseph framing Benjamin for stealing his cup of divination. Read on next week for the next installment of the Adventures of Joseph!
When I read through my parshah, one main question stuck out to me; 'Why?’ What motivates Joseph to do what he does: rising to power wherever he is, punishing his brothers when they don’t recognise him, and some later things in his story beyond this parshah?
It seems to me that Joseph wants power. We know from earlier in the Joseph saga that he was thrown into a pit and sold into slavery by his ten older brothers. So he clearly didn’t have any power there. This seems to create a longing for power in Joseph, which he displays by working very hard to get power, first in the prison and then later with Pharaoh.
Now it does make sense that Joseph wanted power. It’s because when he didn’t, he got hurt. And now that he has power, he can protect himself. But now, the question is, is this a helpful motivation in Joseph’s case? Obviously, it got him to be second in command. But he also sometimes uses his power to hurt other people.
The most obvious example of this is when Joseph pretends not to recognise his brothers. You could definitely say that Joseph just wanted his brothers to repent, or understand his feelings. And I’m sure that Joseph justified it to himself in some way like that. But he didn’t have to do what he did. He could have taught his brothers to repent some other way, but he chose not to. So maybe for Joseph, this motivation made him incapable of seeing the best way of handling this situation. This seems to be the reason for Joseph’s rise to power: he is motivated by a deep-seated thirst for power to protect himself going back to when his brothers sold him into slavery. This incident may not seem like a huge deal. This was only affecting his brothers. It just doesn’t seem very important.
Fast forward one parshah to Vayigash. It’s later during the famine. The people of Egypt have already brought their animals to Joseph and sold them for food, since they are all out of money. The people have nothing left but themselves and their farmland. So they ask Joseph to make them Pharaoh’s servants in exchange for food and seeds to plant. Joseph accepts. So all right, I get this doesn’t seem too bad. The people want food, they suggest they become slaves, Joseph agrees. What’s the big deal?
Well, this idea of the people being slaves becomes the standard for the Egyptian law. This is why the Jewish people would become slaves in Egypt hundreds of years later. It’s because of this law! Without Joseph, the Jews might never have been slaves.
You might say that it still doesn’t seem like Joseph’s fault because the people suggested it - not him. However, those people were desperate for food and they weren’t being rational. Joseph had plenty of food for everyone, and didn’t need to make it a transaction. He could have just given them the food like a caring leader would.
So Joseph was motivated by power. He wanted power to always be able to protect himself. And this got him to big places. But he also used his power to hurt other people who couldn’t protect themselves. So let’s go back to the example with the two siblings. Joseph is the older sibling in this analogy. He can just give the people or his brothers the food. But he wants power. So without realizing he is doing what others did to him, the reason he wanted power, he asks for something in return: slaves or revenge. Despite being the second youngest brother, Joseph is the ultimate mean older sibling. So what we have to remember from this story is to not abuse power, even if it doesn’t seem like a big deal.
Synopsis for Parshat Chaye Sarah
By: Tamar Cytryn, Director of Judaic Studies
The parsha opens with the death of Sarah. Abraham mourns for her, and then deals with the details of her burial. He decides to bury her in Hebron, and after the Hitties who live there offer to give him the land as a gift, he insists on a proper sale. Abraham then deals with finding a wife for his son Isaac. He sends his servant – Eliezer according to commentary but unnamed in the text itself - to his relatives back in Aram Naharaim.
Eliezer wants to ensure he finds the right match, so he decides that he will know the woman is right for Isaac if, when he asks her for water, she not only gives him water but also gives water to his camels. No sooner has he worked out this scheme than Rebecca appears before him and passes his test. Eliezer explains who he is and why he is there, and they proceed to Rebecca’s father’s house.
Eliezer repeats his story to Betuel, Rebecca’s father, and Laban, Rebecca’s brother. They agree to the match, but they do not want her to leave right away, as Eliezer insists. However, Rebecca decides to leave right away, and they are soon on their way. Eliezer and Rebecca meet Isaac in a field, and Isaac and Rebecca are soon wed, inhabiting Sarah’s tent. Isaac is finally comforted over his mother’s death.
Abraham, after a long and fulfilling life, passes away. Isaac and Ishmael together bury Abraham next to Sarah and then go their separate ways.
For a wonderful parsha-themed family discussion around Rebecca’s watering the camels and choosing to do chores, please click on this link.
Grade 8 Dvar Torah by: Jesse
Parshat Vayera Dvar Torah
This week's parsha, parashat Vayera, begins with a visit from three angels to Abraham’s tent. The angels inform Sarah that she will bear a child by the time they return and her only response was to laugh.
She says, “Shall I in truth bear a child, old as I am?” Once the angels left, God tells Abraham that he is considering destroying Sodom and Gomorrah due to its wicked civilians. Abraham challenges God and stands up for complete strangers arguing, “Will you ruin the righteous along with the wicked?” They agree that if there are at least 10 righteous people God will not destroy the town. There weren’t 10 righteous people so God decided to warn Lot, Abraham's nephew, before destroying the town. God sends two angels and Lot and his family flee Sodom and Gomorrah before its destruction. Next, Sarah bears a child and they name him Issac. Sarah sees Ishmael, their handmaid's son, worshipping idols and decides she doesn’t want him to influence Issac. Hagar and Ishmael were sent away but God helps them in the desert and promises a great nation for Ishmael. Lastly, God tests Abrahams loyalty by requesting the sacrifice of his only son, Issac. Without question, Abraham brings Issac to the altar and begins binding him before God reveals this was all a test.
After reading and understanding this parsha, one thing that I found interesting was the fact that Abraham stands up for complete strangers but doesn’t hesitate to sacrifice Issac. He argues with God that righteous people shouldn’t be punished for the wicked peoples actions but later is willing to kill his own son. Why do you think Abraham does this? Why is he willing to kill his son but stands up for strangers
I believe the reason for this was that the failure of losing this argument with God gave him the mentality to never question God again.
Grade 8 Dvar Torah by: Ella
Good morning! In this week's parashat, Parashat Noah, God is disgusted by how corrupt the earth, his creation, had become. Animals and people alike treated each other terribly and chaos surrounded them. God is reasonably outraged and as a result he decides to destroy the whole world in a flood, only saving few people to start anew. In order to do this, God tells Noah, “a righteous man . . . blameless in his age . . . (who) walked with God”- Genesis 6:9 how he ”decided to put an end to all flesh, for the earth is filled with lawlessness” -Genesis 6:13. God then told Noah to build an ark and gather a pair of each species of animal and put them on it so they would stay safe. It is assumed that Noah, his family, and the animals were on the ark for around 370 days.
If this were me I would be very annoyed. To start, I wouldn’t want to spend the majority of my time building an ark for a flood that I can’t even be sure is going to happen and I can’t even imagine having to live with all the animals of the earth for such a long period of time. Then, as much as I love my family, I don’t think I could live with them on a smelly, most likely noisy, ark for 370 days without all of us getting on each other's nerves. To me this seems very unfair considering how Noah before was described as “ a righteous man. . . blameless in his age . . . (who) walked with God.”
If Noah was truly such a “righteous” person shouldn’t he have been rewarded for his behavior? I think this happened because Noah really wasn’t all that great of a person, just slightly better than everyone else, hence the “blameless in his age.” God had to find someone to save the animals and human species so he chose the best option out of a lot of bad options. But of course he still had to punish Noah, his family, and even the animals, so he stuck them all on an ark with pretty intolerable living conditions so they could learn a lesson. Thank you.
Grade 8 Dvar Torah by: Micah
This past year, I played on the CJDS Rams volleyball team. During one game, we were behind and about to lose when the opposing team hit the ball to the back of the court. One of our teammates ran back, attempting to make a near impossible shot. Unfortunately, it didn’t work - and we lost the game.
Some teams would have blamed our friend. But we realized any one of us could have made the same mistake. All of us have dropped the ball at some point. But each of us needed to own up to our mistakes. After all, volleyball is a team sport, and the only way to win is if we cheer each other on, not put each other down, and TAKE RESPONSIBILITY.
This idea - of responsibility - is a major theme in this week’s parsha.
In B’reishit, G-d created Adam and gives him one main rule to follow:
וּמֵעֵ֗ץ הַדַּ֙עַת֙ ט֣וֹב וָרָ֔ע לֹ֥א תֹאכַ֖ל מִמֶּ֑נּוּ כִּ֗י בְּי֛וֹם אֲכָלְךָ֥ מִמֶּ֖נּוּ מ֥וֹת תָּמֽוּת
Eat off any tree or bush except for the tree of knowledge. This is literally where the phrase “forbidden fruit” comes from. As we all know, Adam and Eve do eat the fruit. And then the story gets interesting.
Let’s start with the snake. According to the text, the snake first got Eve to touch the fruit. Then he got Eve to taste it. He’s certainly at least partially to blame.
Then, we have Eve. G-d told Adam that it was forbidden to EAT the fruit from the tree of knowledge, but Eve, in her discussion with the snake, adds that they cannot TOUCH it either. By creating this extra and unnecessary rule she allows herself to believe that if she touched the fruit and nothing happened, surely eating it would be fine as well. And it certainly wasn’t. By putting words in G-d’s mouth, eating the fruit, and by sharing it with Adam, Eve is also to blame.
Finally, we get to Adam. I personally think that Adam didn’t know what fruit he was eating, but he probably should have been more careful, and asked, ‘Hey, where is this fruit from?' Adam was careless in his actions. For this, he bears some blame as well.
Clearly, a lot went wrong in this story. There’s the eating of the fruit, of course… But my biggest concern is that there’s also a lot of finger pointing. It’s a classic tale of he said, she said, snake said.
When G-d asked if they ate from the tree, Adam blames G-d for putting Eve at his side. And he blames Eve for giving him the fruit in the first place. Then Eve, when confronted, said the serpent tricked her into taking a bite. But as I studied the text, it seemed clear to me that G-d wasn’t that mad about what they ate. Instead, I think He got angry that they didn’t own up to their mistakes.
G-d, and the parsha, are teaching us: take responsibility for your actions.
If you read the news these days, an interesting parallel can be found regarding the future of our planet. Despite all of the scientific evidence that humans have created our climate crisis, virtually no one wants to take responsibility. The people, countries and corporations who can bring about the greatest change, are failing to raise their hands. They won’t stand up for the planet we call home, the planet Hashem so beautifully and carefully built in six days.
In recent decades, many mistakes have been made and the blessings of the Earth have been taken for granted. The quests for convenience and economic growth have come at a devastating cost:
- 19 of the 20 warmest years on record have occurred since the year 2000.
- The melting of glaciers and ice sheets are causing sea levels to rise and extreme weather events like droughts, hurricanes and flooding.
The Earth has been neglected and abused - and no one seems willing to own up to it. But unlike Adam, Eve and the snake, each of us must take responsibility. This planet is our Garden of Eden… if we are driven out - by flood, famine, name your natural disaster, we have nowhere else to go.
In Ecclesiastes Rabbah 7:28 it says: In the hour when the Holy one, blessed be He, created the first person, He showed him the trees in the Garden of Eden, and said to him: “See My works, how fine they are; Now all that I have created, I created for your benefit. Think upon this and do not corrupt and destroy My world, For if you destroy it, there is no one to restore it after you.
As a 13-year-old, I know that the things I can personally do are somewhat limited. Recycle. Pass on plastic straws. Compost after kiddush - which I encourage all of you to do so please read the signs by the garbage cans at lunch! But the most important thing that I - and all of us - can do is raise our hands and make ourselves heard… like 16-year-old Swedish climate activist Greta Thunberg.
“What we should do as individuals,” said Greta, “is to use the power of democracy to make our voices heard and to make sure that the people in power cannot continue to ignore this.”
Just last month, on September 20th, millions of young people around the world did just that as part of a Global Climate Strike... raising their hands and their voices - to fight for their future.
For my Bar Mitzvah project I wanted to do something directly connected with my parsha. Thanks to a unique program at KAM Isaiah Israel Synagogue on the south side of Chicago, this was pretty easy to do.
Since 2009, dozens of volunteers have transformed the shul's lawns and other spaces around the neighborhood into food-producing gardens, growing fruits and vegetables and distributing the harvests to those in need. As a volunteer, I learned how to build a tomato trellis, identify when radishes are ready to be pulled, that green beans like to climb (and they taste pretty great), and that it takes a lot of time and effort to go from planting to plate.
As a volunteer, I got my hands dirty - literally - and was able to take direct responsibility for the city I am proud to call home. This idea of planting, not for me, but for others, reminded me of a story I’ve heard many times throughout my Jewish life.
In Taanit 23b it says: "While the sage Choni was walking along a road, he saw an old man planting a carob tree. Choni asked him: “How long will it take for this tree to bear fruit?” “Seventy years,” replied the man. Choni then asked: “Are you so healthy a man that you expect to live that length of time and eat its fruit?” The man answered: “I found a fruitful world because my ancestors planted it for me. Likewise, I am planting for my children.”
Grade 8 Dvar Torah by: Noa and Isabel
Moed tov Middle School,
Today we would like to talk about Sukkot!
How many of you built a sukkah this year? Well, we both did. Sukkot is a super fun and cheerful holiday. It is centered around community and we are supposed to invite others into our sukkahs to celebrate. So, why is Sukkot supposed to be a very joyous occasion?
We just had Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, in which we cried out to God and we focused on our sins this past year. They are both personal holidays and times for self-reflection. We are asking God for forgiveness in a desperate way and we are becoming vulnerable.
Now that our name is inscribed in the book of life we should rejoice! It's time to celebrate after observing a holiday in which we focused primarily on ourselves as we reflected on our sins.
The Torah says that we must invite the stranger and the neighbor into our sukkah. Inviting our community into the sukkah is not only a mitzvah - it allows us to acknowledge others after focusing on just ourselves.
What are some ways you connect you God in a positive and thoughtful way? One way that we feel we connect is by doing mitzvot. It gives us great pleasure to help people in our community and elsewhere.
Sukkot Family Learning by: Tamar Cytryn, Director of Jewish Studies
Chag sameach! Happy holiday!
Gather your family together for a conversation about what we do on Sukkot. Read the following text and discuss the questions below. When you're done, enjoy the two videos that follow!
We'd love to hear about any great answers or questions that arise!
39 But on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you gather in the produce of the land, you shall celebrate the festival of the Lord for a seven day period; the first day shall be a rest day, and the eighth day shall be a rest day.
ל אַ֡ךְ בַּֽחֲמִשָּׁה֩ עָשָׂ֨ר י֜וֹם לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֗י בְּאָסְפְּכֶם֙ אֶת־תְּבוּאַ֣ת הָאָ֔רֶץ תָּחֹ֥גּוּ אֶת־חַג־יְהֹוָ֖ה שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים בַּיּ֤וֹם הָֽרִאשׁוֹן֙ שַׁבָּת֔וֹן וּבַיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁמִינִ֖י שַׁבָּתֽוֹן
40 And you shall take for yourselves on the first day, the fruit of the hadar tree, date palm fronds, a branch of a braided tree, and willows of the brook, and you shall rejoice before the Lord your God for a seven day period.
מ וּלְקַחְתֶּ֨ם לָכֶ֜ם בַּיּ֣וֹם הָֽרִאשׁ֗וֹן פְּרִ֨י עֵ֤ץ הָדָר֙ כַּפֹּ֣ת תְּמָרִ֔ים וַֽעֲנַ֥ף עֵֽץ־עָבֹ֖ת וְעַרְבֵי־נָ֑חַל וּשְׂמַחְתֶּ֗ם לִפְנֵ֛י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֖ם שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים
41 And you shall celebrate it as a festival to the Lord for seven days in the year. [It is] an eternal statute throughout your generations [that] you celebrate it in the seventh month.
מא וְחַגֹּתֶ֤ם אֹתוֹ֙ חַ֣ג לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים בַּשָּׁנָ֑ה חֻקַּ֤ת עוֹלָם֙ לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם בַּחֹ֥דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י תָּחֹ֥גּוּ אֹתֽוֹ
42 For a seven day period you shall live in booths. Every resident among the Israelites shall live in booths,
מב בַּסֻּכֹּ֥ת תֵּֽשְׁב֖וּ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים כָּל־הָֽאֶזְרָח֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל יֵֽשְׁב֖וּ בַּסֻּכֹּֽת
43 in order that your [ensuing] generations should know that I had the children of Israel live in booths when I took them out of the land of Egypt. I am the Lord, your God.
מג לְמַ֘עַן֘ יֵֽדְע֣וּ דֹרֹֽתֵיכֶם֒ כִּ֣י בַסֻּכּ֗וֹת הוֹשַׁ֨בְתִּי֙ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בְּהֽוֹצִיאִ֥י אוֹתָ֖ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם
1) According to this text, what time of the year do we celebrate this holiday? What did we just complete?
2) Why do you think we should be happy at this time of the year?
3) Can you identify at least two ways we should celebrate this holiday according to this text? What are they?
4) What is the reason this text gives us for why we live in sukkot/booths on this holiday?
5) What questions do you have about this text?
Do you love the holidays? Do you love Lego? This is the video for you!
Sukkot is a time of the year when we welcome guests to our Sukkot and our homes. Enjoy this video about hachnasat orchim/welcoming guests.
Rosh HaShanah 5780 Family Discussion by: Tamar Cytryn, Director of Jewish Studies
This week we want to challenge our families to do some learning and thinking together around Rosh Hashanah!
In the mishna (oral tradition) our Rabbis ponder what the shofar blasts should sound like. What kind of noise should we aim to produce when blowing the shofar? The mishna suggests it sound like a "יבבה", a "yevava", often translated as a wail or sob or whine.
There is only person in the Tanakh (our Bible) described as making these sounds. It is a woman who only appears once and doesn’t even have her own name!
In Shoftim/Judges 5:28 it reads:
בְּעַד הַחַלּוֹן נִשְׁקְפָה וַתְּיַבֵּב אֵם סִיסְרָא בְּעַד הָאֶשְׁנָב
מַדּוּעַ בֹּשֵׁשׁ רִכְבּוֹ לָבוֹא מַדּוּעַ אֶחֱרוּ פַּעֲמֵי מַרְכְּבוֹתָיו
“Through the window the mother of Sisera looked forth and sobbed, and peered through the window; why is his chariot late in coming? Why tarry the strides of his chariots?”
Sisera was a very successful commander of the Canaanite army of King Jabin of Hazor, He commanded an army that included 900 chariots. According to Judges chapters 4 & 5 Sisera was eventually defeated by the forces of the Israelite tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali under the command of Barak and Deborah. The verse quoted above describes his mother waiting by the window for her son.
1. What do you think the mother of Sisera is feeling at this moment?
2. What do you think the Israelites felt at his defeat?
3. Why do you think the Rabbis chose this particular woman to pattern the sound of the shofar after?
4. Do you think there is a connection between her experience and our experience on Rosh Hashanah?
Wishing all a happy and sweet new year!
D'var Torah by: Nitai, Grade 7
Here is a simple riddle...
A basket contains five apples. How can you distribute those five apples to five different people and still have one apple left in the basket?
You give up? You give one apple each to four people, and give the fifth person the basket with the last apple still inside. Simple, right?
This Torah portion also describes baskets filled with fruits, and these baskets were brought as gifts. The gifts, called bikkurim, were the first fruits of each year’s harvest. Farmers brought these “gifts” to Jerusalem and presented them before the priest and ultimately sacrificed them to God. The verse states:
וְלָקַחְתָּ מֵרֵאשִׁית כָּל־פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר תָּבִיא מֵאַרְצְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וְשַׂמְתָּ בַטֶּנֶא וְהָלַכְתָּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְשַׁכֵּן שְׁמוֹ שָׁם׃
“you shall take some of every first fruit of the soil, which you harvest from the land that the LORD your God is giving you, put it in a basket and go to the place where the LORD your God will choose to establish His name.”
The Torah continues and a few verses later it commands the farmer not just to bring the fruits but “to rejoice in all the bounty that the LORD your God has bestowed upon you and your household”
וְשָׂמַחְתָּ֣ בְכָל־הַטּ֗וֹב אֲשֶׁ֧ר נָֽתַן־לְךָ֛ ה' אֱ-לֹהֶ֖יךָ וּלְבֵיתֶ֑ךָ אַתָּה֙ וְהַלֵּוִ֔י וְהַגֵּ֖ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּקִרְבֶּֽךָ׃ (ס)
Rashi, the medieval commentator adds that the farmer doesn’t just rejoice but needs to make a public statement when he brings the first fruits to demonstrate that he is grateful for all that he has been given.
Listen, I am just a kid, but it is pretty clear what is being described in the first verse -- “tax collection.” And then God commands the farmer to be happy about it!
Personally - I have never had to pay taxes, but to all the adults in the room, how many of you are rejoicing during that second week of April. Or I’ll ask my Uncle David, the accountant. How many people run up to you when they hand over their W2s or are cutting their checks to the Federal Government rejoicing and make that public statement: “man - God is great!”
But that is what this farmer is being asked to do, to make a dramatic speech, filled with joy when bringing his first fruits to Jerusalem .
Rabbi Naftali Tzvi Yehudah Berlin, a 19th century Lithuanian rabbi known as the Netziv, builds on the verse and Rashi’s explanation and asks “What does it mean to rejoice in everything that is good? That it means “to rejoice with your body and soul together.”
The Netziv explains that the moment of bringing bikurim combines different types of happiness. Happiness of the body - because we have lots of great fruit. And happiness of the soul because we are being reminded to feel gratitude. Feeling grateful comes from recognizing that these gifts, we bring to God are more appropriately framed as “gifts that God has given to us.” Those fruits that we think come from all our hard work were gifts that we were actually granted.
So essentially, the torah flips the script and reframes the entire picture of giving. That these gifts that come with us in the world, whether we are blessed with nourishment, like the farmer, or with talents or skills; they are truly gifts from God, and that what comes with these gifts is a responsibility to dedicate those gifts to giving back to our community and to the broader world.
But even more importantly, the Torah is teaching us that giving back is not done with any resentment, but just the opposite. It is done with joy, happiness, with gratitude in realizing that we have been blessed and privileged, and with that blessing comes the true gift of being able to help others. We must understand that every opportunity to give means that we have been blessed with something to give.
It is very appropriate that this reframe is one of the main themes of my Torah portion, as I get to see these lessons play out all around me. When I look at my 4 grandparents, My GG and Zayde, My Saba and Savta, who I am so blessed to have here today, they have all dedicated their lives to live by this approach; they have dedicated their time, energy and many talents to their communities with absolute Chen - with grace, and with gratitude to God. They built their communities, in Kansas City, Silver Spring and now Jerusalem, not out of a sense of obligation, but a sense of gratitude and pleasure. And my parents work every day to emulate their parents and pass those same lessons to me and my siblings.
So it is today, as I stand as a Bar Mitzvah, that it is my turn to make the public declaration, to use my passions and skills to give back to my community and the world at large; and to do this, not from a sense of obligation, but out of a sense of gratitude, responsibility, and joy.
And though I imagine that when I grow up, I too will not be praising God when I cut my first check, to the Federal Government, I do hope I can live up to lessons in my torah portion, and the bar set by my family so that I can always be a source of pride for this wonderful community! Shabbat Shalom.
In this week's Torah portion, Ki Teitze, we find an important commandment/mitzvah - something named shiluach haken, which roughly translates to sending away the mother bird. We are commanded to shoo the mother bird away if we plan on taking baby birds or eggs for our own consumption. If we fulfill this commandment/mitzvah then the Torah tells us it will be good for us and it will prolong our lives on this earth.
In Deuteronomy/Dvarim chapter 22, verses 6-7 the Torah commands us:
6 If a bird's nest chances before you on the road, on any tree, or on the ground, and [it contains] fledglings or eggs, if the mother is sitting upon the fledglings or upon the eggs, you shall not take the mother with the young.
כִּ֣י יִקָּרֵ֣א קַן־צִפּ֣וֹר | לְפָנֶ֡יךָ בַּדֶּ֜רֶךְ בְּכָל־עֵ֣ץ | א֣וֹ עַל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֶפְרֹחִים֙ א֣וֹ בֵיצִ֔ים וְהָאֵ֤ם רֹבֶ֨צֶת֙ עַל־הָֽאֶפְרֹחִ֔ים א֖וֹ עַל־הַבֵּיצִ֑ים לֹֽא־תִקַּ֥ח הָאֵ֖ם עַל־הַבָּנִֽים:
7 You shall send away the mother, and [then] you may take the young for yourself, in order that it should be good for you, and you should lengthen your days.
שַׁלֵּ֤חַ תְּשַׁלַּח֙ אֶת־הָאֵ֔ם וְאֶת־הַבָּנִ֖ים תִּקַּח־לָ֑ךְ לְמַ֨עַן֙ יִ֣יטַב לָ֔ךְ וְהַֽאֲרַכְתָּ֖ יָמִֽים
1) Why might someone take birds or eggs from a nest?
2) What do you think it means when the Torah says "it should be good for you" if you fulfill this commandment?
3) What do you think it means when the Torah says "you should lengthen your days" if you fulfill this commandment?
4) There is only one other commandment/mitzvah in the Torah where you earn prolonged life if you do it, the commandment/mitzvah of honoring your mother and father. Can you think of any connection between these two commandments/mitzvot?
D'var Torah by: Noam, Grade 8
Means and Ends
One of the classic questions of philosophy is the relationship between ends and means. Do the ends, the goals that we are pursuing, justify the means that we use to pursue those goals. This question has occupied philosophers and politicians for thousands of years and one approach to this question appears in this week’s Torah portion.
Early in the parsha this week, we find the famous verse:
צֶ֥דֶק צֶ֖דֶק תִּרְדֹּ֑ף לְמַ֤עַן תִּֽחְיֶה֙ וְיָרַשְׁתָּ֣ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־ה' אֱ-לֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לָֽךְ׃ (ס)
Justice justice you shall pursue in order that you live and inherit the land that the Lord your God is giving to you.
Even though we know that the word צֶ֖דֶק means “justice” we don’t know why the word is repeated at the beginning of the verse. What does צֶ֥דֶק צֶ֖דֶק תִּרְדֹּ֑ף mean?
Ibn Ezra offers the simplest explanation - but one that might be true. The Torah frequently repeats words just for emphasis.
R. Naftali Tzvi Yehuda Berlin (Netziv) looks to the Gemara in Sanhedrin which interprets one tzedek for law and one tzedek for compromise. There is a need for judges to rule in a fair and just way whether they are engaging in law or facilitating compromise.
He then asks: Why would there need to be a special mitzvah for judges to be impartial in cases when they are asked to facilitate a compromise? They would only ever be asked to arbitrate if they are trusted and respected by the litigants.. He answers that sometimes there is an obligation to compromise and therefore judges must treat it just as seriously as when they are deciding a case of law.
He then points to a gemara in Bava kama which states that the beit hamikdash was destroyed because people only followed the letter of the law and were not willing to compromise
R. Simcha Bunim of Peshischa offers a different interesting interpretation.
One must pursue justice justly. The ends don’t justify the means. Just because you are trying to do something with good intentions doesn’t mean that you can go about achieving them in bad ways.
We can see the relevance of this insight in contemporary debates about crime and punishment. The fourth amendment to the Constitution prohibits searches and seizures without a warrant. This is an example of pursuing justice justly.
From this verse we can take away the importance of compromise, and making sure we are doing things in a just and moral way.